Du you have to learn the English tenses?
Simple Past (the definite past form)
Use the second form of the verb.
Interrogative sentences (questions) are written with the helping verb, “did“. The infinitive form of the verb is used with “did”!
Did you play yesterday? Hast du gestern gespielt?
Did he play yesterday? Hat er gestern gespielt?
Negative sentences are written with the helping verb “didn’t”. Use the infinitive form of the verb with “didn’t”!
He didn’t play yesterday. Gestern hat er nicht gespielt.
Present Perfect (the past tense with two verbs)
Present perfect is formed with the helping verb “have“ or “has“ for “he, she, it” + the past participle. If the verb is a regular verb, you only need to add -ed
I have played. Ich habe gespielt.
He has played. Er hat gespielt.
Anwendung: Verwende Simple Past wenn du die Zeit angibst!
I called my dad on Monday. Am Montag habe ich meinen Vater angerufen. (“On Monday” ist die Zeitangabe.)
*****CORRECT **** I called my dad on Monday.
*****NOT CORRECT **** I have called my dad on Monday.
You have to conjugate the verb for 3rd person singular. You just hang an –S on the end of the verb for “he, she, it“. That’s it!
I play. Ich spiele.
You play. Du spielst/ Ihr spielt.
He plays. Er spielt.
They play. Sie spielen.
We play. Wir spielen.
Spelling when Adding an -S to Verbs
- After –s, -z, -ch, -sh, -x, (called sibilants) put an –es on the end of the verb for he, she, it: watches, pushes, teaches, mixes, misses
- For verbs that end in -o, put an -es on the end of the verb for he, she, it. (There’s only two very common verbs for this rule: go – goes, do – does.
- The ending –y changes to –ie , when there’s a consonant before it:
carry – carries
play – plays
Interogative sentences begin with the helping verbs “do” and “does”. The infinitive form of the verb is used with “do” and “does”.
Do you have money? Hast du Geld?
Does he have money? Hat er Geld?
Negative sentences begin with the helping verbs “don’t” and “doesn’t”. The infinitive form of the verb is used with “don’t” and “doesn’t”.
He doesn’t have money. Er hat kein Geld.
*****CORRECT **** He doesn’t have money.
*****NOT CORRECT**** He has not money.
Simple Present Progressive (expressing a temporary state of action)
Statements are written with a conjugated form of the helping verb “be” (am/is/are) and the ing-form of the verb.
You are playing. Du bist gerade am Spielen.
Interrogative sentences (questions): am/is/are is placed in the first position.
Are you playing? Bist du gerade am Spielen?
When writing a negative sentence, only the helping verb “be“ is negated and not the ing-form of the verb.
He isn’t playing. Er spielt momentan nicht.
Different Uses of Simple Present and Simple Present Progressive
When you use the progressive form you are expressing an action which is temporary and/or an action that is happening at the time of speaking.
I’m getting up. Ich stehe jetzt gerade auf.
If you want to talk about an action that happens regularly (every day, for example) use simple past.
I get up every day at six. Ich stehe immer morgens um sechs auf.
Use the progressive form if the action is a short-term exception to something done regularly.
I usually get up at six, but today I’m sleeping in. Normalerweise stehe ich um sechs Uhr auf, aber ausnahmsweise darf ich ausschlafen.
Future 1 with “Will” and Future with “Going-to”
Future with the Helping Verb “Will”
Statements are written with the helping verb “will” and the infinitive form of the verb.
It will rain. Es wird Regen geben.
Interrogative sentences (questions): “will” is placed in the first position.
Will it rain? Wird es Regen geben?
Negation is with “not“, either “will not” oder “won’t”
It won’t rain. Es wird keinen Regen geben. / Es regnet nicht.
Future with “Going-to”
Statements are written with the helping verb “be” (am/is/are) + going to, followed by the infinitive form of the verb.
She’s going to go to lunch at 12. Sie geht zu Mittag essen um 12.
Fragestellung: Is she going to go to lunch at 12?
If you want to negate the verb, only negate the helping verb “be” (am not, isn’t aren’t) . Leave the other verb in the infinitive form.
She isn’t going to go to lunch at 12.
Use future 1 (with “will”) if you assume something is true, but you can’t be 100 % sure that it’s true.
I think it will rain soon. Ich denke es wird bald Regen geben.
Maybe it will rain soon. Vielleicht wird es bald Regen geben.
Use future with going-to for plans and intended actions.
My boyfriend and I are going to get married. Mein Freund und ich werden heiraten.
Here’s a difficult usage: you use going-to if you come to a logical conclusion about something. In other words, if there is A and B, then C must follow!
Example 1. Clouds are building in the sky and there’s a few raindrops here and there. Logical conclusion: it’s going to rain.
Example 2. He always comes late and he’s always getting into trouble with his boss. Logical conclusion: He’s going to get fired.
The future forms are the most difficult to use and interpret correctly. Do you have any questions? Please feel free to write me a comment! The other tenses are coming soon.